The Builder Design Pattern is a creational design pattern that provides a way to construct complex objects step-by-step. It separates the construction of a complex object from its representation, allowing the same construction process to create different representations.

Key Components

1. Builder: An abstract interface for creating parts of a Product object.
2. Concrete Builder: A class that implements the Builder interface and provides specific implementations for the steps required to build the product.
3. Director: A class that constructs an object using the Builder interface. It controls the construction process.
4. Product: The complex object that is being built. It often has many parts.

Example of building a car using the Builder Design Pattern.

Product Class
public class Car {
private String engine;
private String wheels;
private String body;

public void setEngine(String engine) {
this.engine = engine;

public void setWheels(String wheels) {
this.wheels = wheels;

public void setBody(String body) {
this.body = body;

public String toString() {
return “Car with engine: ” + engine + “, wheels: ” + wheels + “, body: ” + body;

Builder Interface
public interface CarBuilder {
void buildEngine();
void buildWheels();
void buildBody();
Car getCar();

public class SportsCarBuilder implements CarBuilder {
private Car car;

public SportsCarBuilder() { = new Car();

public void buildEngine() {
car.setEngine(“V8 Engine”);

public void buildWheels() {
car.setWheels(“Sport Wheels”);

public void buildBody() {
car.setBody(“Sport Body”);

public Car getCar() {
return car;

public class CarDirector {
private CarBuilder carBuilder;

public CarDirector(CarBuilder carBuilder) {
this.carBuilder = carBuilder;

public void buildCar() {

public Car getCar() {
return carBuilder.getCar();

Client Code
public class Client {
public static void main(String[] args) {
CarBuilder builder = new SportsCarBuilder();
CarDirector director = new CarDirector(builder);
Car car = director.getCar();

Code Explanation :
1. Car: The `Product` class representing the complex object being built.
2. CarBuilder: The `Builder` interface declaring the steps to build a car.
3. SportsCarBuilder: The `ConcreteBuilder` class implementing the `CarBuilder` interface, providing specific steps to build a sports car.
4. CarDirector: The `Director` class that controls the construction process using a `CarBuilder`.
5. Client: The client code that puts everything together, using the `CarDirector` to build a car and retrieve it.


– Controlled Construction: The construction process is controlled and can be modified independently.
– Reusability: The same construction process can be used to create different representations.
– Flexibility: Builders can construct products step-by-step, allowing more control over the construction process.

When to Use:
– When you need to create a complex object with multiple parts.
– When you want to separate the construction process from the final representation.
– When you want to allow different representations of the same construction process.

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Author: Ambarish Durani

JAVA Trainer

IT Education Centre Placement & Training Institute

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