ethical hacking questions that you might encounter in an interview, grouped into different categories. These
questions are intended to assess your knowledge, skills, and understanding of ethical hacking concepts.
Remember to prepare well and be ready to discuss each topic in detail.
### General Ethical Hacking Concepts Interview Questions:
1. What is ethical hacking, and why is it important?
2. Explain the differences between black hat, white hat, and gray hat hackers.
3. Define vulnerability, exploit, and payload.
4. Describe the steps of the ethical hacking process.
5. What is the difference between penetration testing and vulnerability assessment?
### Networking and Network Security Interview Questions:
6. Explain the OSI model and its layers.
7. What is ARP poisoning, and how can it be mitigated?
8. Describe DNS spoofing and ways to prevent it.
9. How does a firewall work, and what are its types?
10. What is a DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) in network security?
### Web Application Security Interview Questions:
11. What is SQL injection, and how can it be prevented?
12. Explain Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks and mitigation techniques.
13. Describe Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attacks and how to defend against them.
14. What is the Same-Origin Policy in web security?
15. How can you secure a web application using HTTPS?
### Operating Systems and System Security Interview Questions:
16. What is a buffer overflow vulnerability, and how can it be exploited?
17. Explain privilege escalation and ways to prevent it.
18. Describe rootkits and methods to detect them.
19. How can you secure a Linux system? Mention key practices.
20. What is User Account Control (UAC) in Windows, and why is it important?
### Wireless Network Security Interview Questions:
21. Explain the vulnerabilities of WEP and WPA in wireless networks.
22. What is a rogue access point, and how can it be detected?
23. Describe the process of cracking a WPA/WPA2 passphrase.
24. What is a de-authentication attack in Wi-Fi networks?
25. How can you secure a wireless network effectively?
### Cryptography and Encryption:
26. Define encryption and decryption.
27. Explain the differences between symmetric and asymmetric encryption.
28. What is a digital signature, and how does it ensure message integrity?
29. Describe the purpose of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).
30. What is a rainbow table, and how does it relate to password cracking?
### Malware and Incident Response:
31. What is the difference between viruses, worms, Trojans, and ransomware?
32. Explain the stages of the Incident Response Lifecycle.
33. Describe the purpose and operation of an Intrusion Detection System (IDS).
34. How can you analyze a suspicious file or program for malware?
35. What is a honeypot, and how can it be used in cybersecurity?
### Social Engineering and Phishing:
36. Define social engineering and provide examples of its techniques.
37. How can organizations educate employees to prevent social engineering attacks?
38. Explain the concept of spear phishing and ways to mitigate its risks.
39. Describe the role of social engineering in penetration testing.
40. What is pretexting, and how can it be used in a social engineering attack?
### Cloud Security:
41. Explain the shared responsibility model in cloud security.
42. Describe the differences between Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and
Software as a Service (SaaS) from a security perspective.
43. How can you secure data stored in a cloud environment?
44. What is the importance of identity and access management (IAM) in the cloud?
45. Describe cloud-specific vulnerabilities and best practices for mitigating them.
### Mobile Application Security:
46. Explain the concept of "jailbreaking" or "rooting" a mobile device.
47. What are the security risks associated with mobile app permissions?
48. How can you protect a mobile app against reverse engineering?
49. Describe the significance of secure coding practices in mobile app development.
50. What is two-factor authentication (2FA), and how does it enhance mobile security?
### Network Traffic Analysis:
51. What is packet sniffing, and how can you protect against it?
52. Explain the difference between a proxy and a VPN in network security.
53. Describe a man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack and techniques to prevent it.
54. How can you detect and respond to abnormal network traffic patterns?
55. What is intrusion prevention, and how does it differ from intrusion detection?
### Exploitation and Tools:
56. Describe the purpose of a vulnerability scanner and provide examples.
57. Explain how Metasploit Framework can be used for penetration testing.
58. What is Nmap, and how can it help in network discovery and mapping?
59. How does Wireshark assist in network analysis and troubleshooting?
60. Define a "zero-day" vulnerability and its significance in hacking.
### Legal and Ethical Considerations:
61. Discuss the legal implications of unauthorized hacking attempts.
62. Explain responsible disclosure and its importance in cybersecurity.
63. Describe the role of ethical hacking in improving overall cybersecurity.
64. How can you ensure your actions as an ethical hacker are within legal boundaries?
65. What ethical guidelines should ethical hackers follow?
### Incident Handling and Recovery:
66. What steps would you take in responding to a security breach?
67. How can you preserve and analyze digital evidence during an incident?
68. Describe the purpose of a security incident response plan.
69. What are the key elements of a disaster recovery plan?
70. How can an organization improve its post-incident analysis process?
### Secure Development Lifecycle:
71. Explain the principles of secure coding and their benefits.
72. What is a security code review, and how is it conducted?
73. Describe the concept of input validation and its role in preventing vulnerabilities.
74. How can you mitigate security risks in the software development process?
75. What is the importance of security testing in the software development lifecycle?
### Threat Intelligence and Analysis:
76. Define threat intelligence and its role in cybersecurity.
77. How can you gather and analyze threat intelligence data?
78. Describe the indicators of compromise (IoC) and tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) used in
79. What is the Cyber Kill Chain, and how can it be used to analyze attacks?
80. Explain the concept of threat hunting and its benefits.
### Secure Network Design:
81. Describe the principle of least privilege and its application in network design.
82. How can you segment a network to improve security?
83. Explain the concept of defense-in-depth in network security.
84. What is a honeynet, and how can it be used to detect and analyze attacks?
85. Describe the importance of network monitoring and intrusion detection systems.
### Wireless Network Security:
86. Explain the vulnerabilities of WEP and WPA in wireless networks.
87. What is a rogue access point, and how can it be detected?
88. Describe the process of cracking a WPA/WPA2 passphrase.
89. What is a de-authentication attack in Wi-Fi networks?
90. How can you secure a wireless network effectively?
### Cryptography and Encryption:
91. Define encryption and decryption.
92. Explain the differences between symmetric and asymmetric encryption.
93. What is a digital signature, and how does it ensure message integrity?
94. Describe the purpose of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).
Vinod Raj Purohit
Ethical Hacking and Cyber Security Trainer
IT Education Centre Placement & Training Institute
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